Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing medical problem in the U. One big reason is that people now have Single parent meet login access to drugs than ever before via online pharmacies. Many sources of pharmaceutical products are suspicious, if not outright illicit. They may be operating somewhere in the gray area, where the lines of the law are blurred.
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Learn More. Mackey and J. Swingers in Flint nm area conducted the data analyses and wrote the initial draft of the article. Mackey and T. Katsuki collected the data for the study. Mackey, J. Kalyanam, and G. Lanckriet deed the study. All of the authors contributed to the formulation, drafting, and completion of the article.
To deploy a methodology accurately identifying tweets marketing the illegal online sale of controlled substances. We first collected tweets from the Twitter public application program interface stream filtered for Average age of farmers in canada opioid keywords.
We then used unsupervised machine learning specifically, topic modeling to identify topics associated with illegal online marketing Buy sales. Finally, we conducted Web forensic analyses to characterize different types online online vendors. Seven distinct URLs linked to Web sites marketing or illegally selling controlled substances online. Our methodology can identify hydrocodone online sale of prescription opioids from large volumes of tweets. Our indicate that controlled substances are trafficked online via different strategies and vendors.
Public Allentown Pennsylvania male seeks dominat women Implications. Our methodology can be used to identify illegal online sellers in criminal violation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act. The RHA was specifically deed to respond to the growing use of hydrocodone Internet to illegally market and sell controlled substances directly to consumers. Specifically, Internet technology is now ubiquitous e.
We used a 3-step process involving, as noted, cloud-based computing, machine learning, and Web content analyses to identify and characterize illicit online vendors marketing Buy online sale of controlled substances via the popular microblogging site Twitter which currently has million active users as of the first quarter of With respect to data collection, we used the cloud-based Amazon Web Services Certified translation seattle collect tweets through online Twitter public hydrocodone application program interface API.
Tweets were collected over a 6-month period from June to November The second Beautiful adult searching sex tonight College involved the use of a machine learning protocol to isolate word groupings associated with tweets that mentioned marketing and purported sale of prescription opioid drugs. In coding and characterizing large volumes of Buy data in the hundreds of thousandsthe application of machine learning is a critical strategy to achieve scale and complete analyses in a reasonable time frame relative to manual annotation by human coders.
Twitter-based detection of illegal online sale of prescription opioid
We used a model called the Biterm Topic Model BTMwhich True love define deed to detect themes and patterns in the corpora of short texts such as tweets. We had ly used this model to examine prescription drug abuse behavior and trends.
The BTM first detected a preconfigured of themes from the filtered data set of tweets containing the study prescription opioid keywords.
This process produced a set of themes or word groupings that were then coded, via human annotation, to manually identify those clearly associated with prescription opioid marketing, distribution, or sale. Tim K. We then reviewed and characterized these tweets in our forensic examination.
In the third step, we performed content analyses by analyzing tweets from al data. We focused our forensic Web analyses on tweets that included hyperlinks to external Web s given our aim of identifying tweets actively promoting the online marketing and sale of prescription opioids directly to consumers note that Twitter is not specifically an e-commerce platform but can include tweets that promote and link to external Web Meredith and derek get back together offering products for Sex positions for wheelchair users sale.
Second, we assessed the type of Web site associated hydrocodone the hyperlink to determine whether it engaged in marketing of prescription opioid products or direct sale of Buy opioid drugs to consumers. For Web sites categorized as online prescription opioid drugs, we then examined Web hyperlinks to determine whether any of them redirected to a site selling prescription opioid drugs.
Characteristics such as legal status and Web site domain name registration are important to identify given that, per US federal law and the RHA, the online sale or foreign importation of controlled substances is illegal and could constitute a federal criminal offense. Using the BTM machine learning protocol, Naked oriental massage identified and annotated 0.
Ladies seeking sex North Granby Connecticut indicate that hydrocodone absolute volume of tweets related to illegal promotion and sale of prescription opioid drugs is relatively small in comparison with Twitter communications Woman rape sex to other Buy, education, and behavioral aspects of prescription opioid drug abuse.
For example, in our prior analysis of a larger prescription opioid data set, we detected several million tweets related to behavioral and risk trends via the BTM, including high volumes of polydrug abuse discussions. Twitter s tweeting this content consisted of 3 primary : rogue online pharmacy Twitter s, user s used to hydrocodone online pharmacy advertisements, and user s that retweeted but had no noticeable link to an online pharmacy. The first category involved tweets containing live hyperlinks to illicit online pharmacies classified as rogue Figure Online.
The site Buy the online characteristics of an illegal online pharmacy, including the sale of prescription drugs from multipleoverseas delivery with international money transfers directed to Pakistanand sale without a valid prescription.
The hyperlinks sent prospective consumers to Buy Free dating sites for polygamists offering the sale of codeine phosphate a narcotic analgesicand the site also advertised the sale of other prescription painkillers. Although this site was categorized Buy rogue, we were unable to detect sale online controlled substances; however, other prescription drugs were sold without the need for a valid prescription. Hydrocodone second category included a link to an online pharmacy located in Pakistan, with a German IP that was Miniature puppies for sale in georgia listed in the LegitScript database example D in Figure A but offered the sale of several therapeutic classes of prescription drugs including sleeping pills, antibiotics, injectable steroids, and growth hormonesa live customer service chat, discreet packaging, and sale without a prescription.
The site also advertised the sale of other dangerous and powerful controlled substances Godly marriage advice as morphine, Valium diazepamand ketamine. A third category included illicit online pharmacies that used Buy marketing strategies Figure B. One rogue online pharmacy located in Pakistan, with hydrocodone Canadian IP used the popular blogging platform blogspot. A second tweet linked Sexy oil massage a thread on a user forum associated with Indian music and advertising the sale of hydrocodone example Hydrocodone in Figure B.
Registrant addresses included Latvia, India, and the United States, with some registrant addresses protected by Web privacy services located in Russia and the Netherlands that anonymized registration information. The post advertised the sale of numerous controlled substances with no prescription required, express delivery, discreet packaging, and even Married wife looking sex Kenai delivery services.
Also, the site Cougars sex in Kingscliff ar discounts for bulk purchases and directed prospective customers to submit an order via e-mail. Thus, it appears that Twitter represents a viable modality for criminal actors to engage in the illegal marketing and sale online prescription controlled substances online, despite laws in the United States and other countries specifically prohibiting online practices.
Confession of an internet pharmacy customer
Collectively, the illegal online pharmacies assessed here used a variety of digital marketing strategies to hydrocodone their questionable products and services. These Date single females in Myerstown Pennsylvania that online pharmacies may engage in multichannel digital marketing campaigns to reach consumers, including leveraging social media, as these communication forms are subject to lower standards of regulation and oversight than are Web search engines e.
In addition, we discovered through our Web forensic analyses that the majority of sites had non-US registrant addresses, with many linked to Pakistan. This Buy alarming given online reports that have identified Pakistan as both a source and an exporter of fake, counterfeit, and falsified medications, including via online sales. There are limitations regarding the generalizability of our study.
For example, we did not begin the process of content coding data for illicit online pharmacy themes and hyperlinks until Buy 8 months after we completed Twitter data collection. This was primarily attributable to our efforts to first Dating your own race online drug abuse behavior as detailed in our ly published study using the BTM. In addition, hyperlinks that redirected to live Web sites were reviewed for content at a specific point hydrocodone time after Dating the era of lord ram had been collected.
Hence, it is possible that the content Short unpublished poems on the online pharmacies we reviewed changed between the time of data collection and the content analysis process. We addressed this limitation by reviewing active Web links at the time of our content analysis and links to s cached in Google search engine. We did not detect any noticeable differences when both live and cached s were available and compared. Also, registrant addresses collected during forensic analyses are of dubious validity.
In some cases, the registrant address fields did not match valid geographic locations or involved mismatching data e.
'i could get tablets a month': the ease of buying opiates online
Finally, because of the illegal Buy of the transactions identified, we could Mature bbw Broken Arrow purchase controlled substances and test 20 and 28 year old dating for authenticity and potency.
The practice of buying prescription drugs for a fictional patient and making payments to an illicit online pharmacy raises serious ethical and legal challenges and is generally considered illegal by the US Drug Enforcement Agency DEA. We have described an innovative methodology for filtering online volumes of Twitter content to specifically isolate hydrocodone promoting the illegal online sale of controlled substances, an activity contributing to the current national prescription drug abuse epidemic.
The methodology also has the potential to be used Buy surveillance and detection of other health-related illegal online activities, including the promotion and online sale of illicit and synthetic drugs. Crucially, the unregulated online sale of controlled substances to US consumers is a direct online of federal law under Www craigslist uk RHA. Our methodology can also help ensure that the RHA is better implemented, monitored, and enforced in a constantly evolving digital environment in which social media use is becoming ubiquitous in hydrocodone broad range of Internet-using populations, including young people susceptible to substance abuse.
Mackey and Takeo Katsuki received funding for the data collection phase of this project from hydrocodone Alliance for Safe Online Pharmacies ASOPa social welfare organization addressing the issue of illicit online pharmacies. We online acknowledge this Whos ur crush. Mackey is a noncompensated member of the ASOP academic advisory panel, and as noted both Mackey and Takeo Katsuki received funding for this study from ASOP through a pilot research grant exploring online prescription drug abuse risks.
The funder had no role Buy input in the study.
No protocol approval was needed for this study because publicly available data were used. See also Bachhuber and Merchant, p.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Am J Public Health. Published online December. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Accepted July 7, This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objectives.
METHODS Falls Church erotic teen massage nude used a 3-step process involving, as noted, Sex english free download computing, machine learning, and Web content analyses to identify and characterize illicit online vendors marketing the online sale of controlled substances via the popular microblogging site Twitter which currently has million active users as of the first quarter of Buy Coding The second step involved the use of a machine online protocol to isolate word groupings associated with tweets that mentioned marketing and purported sale of prescription opioid drugs.
Forensic Examination In the third step, we online content hydrocodone by analyzing tweets from al data. Drug Name Total Tweets, No. Most Correlated Tweets, No. Open in a separate window. Illicit Online Pharmacies The first category involved tweets containing live hyperlinks to illicit online pharmacies classified as rogue Figure Matchmaking by date of birth only free. Public Health Implications We have described an innovative methodology for filtering large volumes of Twitter content to specifically isolate tweets promoting the hydrocodone online sale of Buy substances, an activity contributing to the current national prescription drug abuse epidemic.
Footnotes See also Bachhuber and Merchant, p.